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이름 or 단체명

고화연

출신 학교

Deutsche Schule Prag

SDGs 그룹

[Group 1] 1. 빈곤퇴치 2. 기아퇴치 3. 건강과 복지

포럼 주제/소주제

Yes, We Will Defeat Poverty. For Good. / For the Dreams and Hopes of the Future

초록

SDG Goal 1: No Poverty

The purpose of this research paper “Yes, We Will Defeat Poverty. For Good” was to study poverty in Africa, analyze its grave consequences, and identify different ways to reach the Sustainable Development Goal of no poverty. This research presents that corruption is the factor that pervades the aftermath of poverty in Africa. Whereas past studies propose a rather wide range of solutions to aim for SDG 1 in Africa, this paper concludes to three main answers to solve the majority of poverty ramifications: i) increasing state capacity, ii) striving for agricultural development, and iii) carrying out financial strategies. Antipoverty programs and Poverty Reduction Strategies along with numerous financial strategies from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) will be the building blocks for the proposals presented in this paper. Thereby, this research emphasizes the need of change and awareness of this subject and the importance of poverty reduction in Africa.

포럼발표
  • Jacob
    황보준
    2021년 3월 20일 at 11:17 오전

    Thank you for your presentation! I just have a quick question for you.
    How can you execute the strategies proposed to overcome corruption in the African countries?

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 20일 at 8:06 오후

      Thank you for watching my presentation! To answer your question, overcoming corruption in Africa, first of all, is not an easy matter since it is so deeply rooted in African countries. I believe that the strategies that I proposed can only be successfully executed when African people are aware of the needed change in their countries. Many African people are too occupied in finding resources to get through one day that it leaves them no space in their minds to think about the future and the well-being of their country. Therefore, I believe that my solutions, need the help of NGOs with practical strategies in order for my solutions to be successful. The NGOs will be able to broaden education for young Africans and provide them with minimum essentials. Only then, I think my solutions could be successfully executed. People might say that there are enough programs that are being initiated in Africa, but no big chance has been seen. Despite the fact that changes in Africa are happening rather slowly, I believe that once education fully reach the African youth, they have the potential to overcome corruption and poverty in the coming generations.

      • Jacob
        황보준
        2021년 3월 22일 at 11:42 오후

        Thank you for your answer! i strongly agree with your opinion that the Africans need to be aware of the need to change. So in this case, education would be the most important factor which could promote the awareness for the political change. Political stability needs to be set up first.

  • Leo
    최문성
    2021년 3월 22일 at 11:50 오전

    Hello we wrote over the same topic. A quick question for you. So the poverty in Africa is clearly severe so they depend on much more developed countries. So my question is, Do you think you should focus on the underdeveloped or developing countries more than the developed countries poverty?( I mean the developed countries may be well developed but if they are not focusing on the fact that people from there country are living on extreme poverty and not being able to properly solve the crisis, then the poverty could potentially increase and it could affect the other developing countries). Good morning btw :>

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 22일 at 8:53 오후

      Good morning, and thank you for taking a look at my presentation! So, my answer to your question would be that poverty, first of all, violates fundamental human rights of all people in the world. Just like you mentioned, poverty in Africa is indeed worse than any other regions in the world. This does not mean that I do think that poverty eradication in developing and developed countries should be neglected; every country should strive to reduce poverty in order to prevent further ramifications. However, I believe that the urgency of poverty reduction in Africa is at a whole new level. Poverty eradication in developing/developed countries can be more easily addressed and overcome by passing out new laws, donations, governmental initiatives etc.; they do not necessarily rely on other countries in order attempt to reduce poverty. However, many African countries do not even have an intact governmental system that are capable of bringing the problem of poverty to surface. Therefore, I believe that all countries should try to reduce poverty in their countries, however, one has to keep in mind that ramifications of poverty in Africa are not exactly comparable with poverty in developing/developed countries. I hope I was able to answer your question!

  • 수빈
    박수빈
    2021년 3월 23일 at 12:21 오후

    안녕하세요 화연 님

    그룹 6에서 아동 포르노 학대를 연구한 개인 참가자 박수빈이라고 합니다. 개인적으로 아프리카의 빈곤에 대한 화연 님의 조사는 다양한 측면의 문제를 다루었다고 생각합니다. 이는 역시 기존 연구 및 추상적인 솔루션에 국한되지 않은 심도높은 연구라고 판단하는 바입니다. 전반적으로 화연의 연구는 국제기관들이 나아가야할 이상적인 방향을 잘 반영하고 있다고 생각합니다. 19 페이지에서 아프리카 국가 내 정책의 한계점에 대해 시사하셨는데, 만약 국제기구들이 이 부분에 관여한다면 관연 어떤 전략을 세워야 할지 또한 그에 따른 긍정적 영향에 대해서 보다 구체적으로 설명 부탁드립니다.

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 23일 at 10:43 오후

      안녕하세요 수빈 님,

      앞서서 아프리카 빈곤 퇴치의 관심을 가져주시고 제 보고서를 읽어주셔서 정말 감사합니다! 수빈님께서 언급하신 질문은 국제기구들이 아프리카 빈곤을 퇴치하기 위해서 꼭 한번쯤은 생각해봐야 할 문제라고 생각합니다. 국제기구들이 빈곤을 없애기 위해서 아프리카 정부에 개입을 할 때 전략적이고 신중 해야한다고 생각합니다. NGO 와 같은 국제기구의 최우선 과제는 현재 극심한 빈곤의 처한 아프리카 사람들의 수를 줄이고 동시의 교육을 받는 아프리카 사람들의 수를 늘리는 것이라고 생각합니다. 예를 들어, 아동 노동을 줄이고 교육을 장려하기 위해 “Solar Cow Project” 와 같은 다양한 프로젝트가 있습니다. 교육이 국가에 어느정도 널리 퍼지면 다음 세대에 아프리카 청년들이 기존의 부패한 정부를 민주적인 정부 시스템으로 바꿀 수 있을 거라고 생각합니다. 그러면 제 보고서의 언급 된 국제기구의 제안이 가장 성공적으로 실행이 될 수 있을 겁니다. 왜냐하면 모든 제안을 실행하기 위해서는 교육과 그에 따르는 탄탄한 국가 안전성이 필요하기 때문입니다. 교육 시스템이 아프리카에 형성되고 아프리카의 청년들이 민주적인 자국을 이루어 내면 IMF 와 같은 다른 국제기구들의 제안들이 아프리카 빈곤을 줄일 수 있을 거라고 생각합니다. 과거의 깊이 자리 잡혀 있었던 부패 습관을 방지하기 위해 국제기구들은 정부를 규제하는 새로운 기관을 설립을 할 수도 있습니다. 그러나 아프리카 사람들이 교육을 받으면 아프리카 사람들이 옳고 그름을 판단 할 능력이 생기기 때문에 부패 위험을 줄일 수 있다고 생각합니다. 요약하자면, 교육은 아프리카 전역에 널리 확대 되어야 하며 이것은 NGO의 도움이 필요할 것 입니다. 아프리카 정부가 민주적인 시스템으로 대체되면 국제기구의 제안이 성공적으로 수행 될 수 있으며, 이는 아프리카에 아주 큰 도움이 될 것입니다. 이 모든 과정이 가까운 장래에 보이지는 않겠지만 장기적으로 볼 때 아프리카 미래의 최선책이라고 생각합니다.

  • 황지원
    황지원
    2021년 3월 24일 at 1:29 오전

    Hello! This is Jiwon Hwang of team TAT. Our team wrote the report on the premise that “In order for a country’s economy to develop, industry and education must be developed not only through the efforts of the government but also through the efforts of all the people.” But for African children, it’s going to be a little different. Do you think the African community need to educate children, the future of Africa, for their economic growth, after their health is restored? Or do you think children should join forces for the nation’s workforce for rapid industrial development?

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 25일 at 3:49 오전

      Thank you for taking a look at my presentation and my essay! I think your group’s premise is very convincing since the government and the people indeed need work as a cooperating unit in order to bring positive outcomes to the country. My answer to your questions would the following. Regardless of the health of young Africans, the reason why I think education is important is not because I want African children to work in industrial sectors to start the engine for an economic development. I want them to receive education to, first of all, reduce child labor, secondly, make young Africans realize the changes needed in their country, and lastly, encourage them to stand up for what is right and wrong. Either way, whether one prioritises economic growth or education, Africans need to be in a somewhat healthy physical state in order to do any of them. Therefore, I believe that restoring the health of Africans living in extreme poverty should be the main focus while simultaneously promoting education for those that are able to learn. In order for a sustainable development in both economic and industrial areas, a strong workforce is needed. I hope I was able to answer your question, if not, just let me know, so I can try to answer it better!

      • 황지원
        황지원
        2021년 3월 28일 at 9:15 오후

        Thank you for your reply! Education is also important, but I totally agree with the idea that we should make a living out of extreme poverty. That’s a great idea.

  • 루피
    강기연
    2021년 3월 25일 at 2:23 오전

    Hello! Thank you for your presentation. I think the overall composition is solid, so I hope you can elaborate on the solution. For example, what are the ways to increase government transparency? How can you build a financial system and a tax system strong and efficient?

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 26일 at 5:13 오전

      Hello and thank you for your feedback and the interesting questions! My response for your first question would be that a clear separation of powers (executive, legislation, judiciary) first needs to be established in order to increase government transparency. The primary reason why many African countries are suffering from a corruptive government (low government transparency) is because executive officials intervene with both legislative and judiciary branches. As a result, corrupt politicians can easily get away with their wrongdoings without any punishment. However, once the three branches are firmly settled in African governments, they will exercise power over each other when the foundational principles of democracy are being violated. In this process, it will be important that the legislation passes out laws so that government officials will receive harsh punishments in cases of this felony. By doing so, potential corruption risks can be averted to a certain extent. Moreover, a transparent voting system will also have to be introduced. This is because the powers of a state derive from the people, not from the state. A perfect symbiosis between a transparent voting system and a clear-structured government will drastically reduce all kinds of risks and obstacles. Sadly, however, this will not always be the case. Therefore, non-state-owned institutions that regulate the government would additionally need to be established to secure a stable non-intersecting government. In intensifying the intimate bond between the government and its citizens, the media would potentially play a big role since it will be an important source where both the government and its citizens would gain mutual information from. However, to avoid negative outcomes related to the media, education will subsequently have to be enforced since African people will develop the ability to filter out false information from the truth by learning. However, I believe that truth is something subjective. Everybody perceives their own truth that could differ from the truth of someone else. Summing up, I believe that a clear separation of powers, transparent voting system, and the media will be the most important factors in heightening government transparency.

      My answer to your second question would be that the government’s ill-intentions in financial and tax systems will immediately decrease its efficiency. This is because the money will not be used for the benefit of the citizens but to the advantage of the government instead. Another important aspect would be that the rich in African countries should pay more taxes than Africans of low-income. Regardless of one’s political view regarding this topic, the first step in reducing poverty rates in Africa would mean that Africans living in (extreme) poverty would have to be reduced. In order to achieve this, the government needs to be cautious of Value-Added Tax (VAT). This is because, like I mentioned in my paper, VAT acts as a regressive factor that deducts more money from the poor. At the same time, the government would have to work on creating reasonable budgets that would bring positive outcomes to the country. They could get advices from international organisations or use financial and tax systems of those countries that have been a good example to the world. I hope I was able to answer your question!

  • Tommy
    Tommy Park
    2021년 3월 27일 at 8:31 오전

    Thank you for your presentation. In your graphs, the data only was up to 2015. However, in these last few years, I believe that many things have improved including the nationwide systems that allow us to support the people in need more efficiently. In addition, the recent virus was not taken into account as recently, the poverty rates have sky rocketed globally due to this pandemic. I would like to know how the recent changes in the world would affect that graph now?
    Your presentation was very well written and easy to follow through, thank you.

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 27일 at 7:45 오후

      Hello, and thank you for your feedback! Sadly, no major improvements in African countries have been recorded in the graphs that were of your concern (cf. p.9, 10, 20). Like I mentioned in my essay, despite the fact that there are more Africans escaping from poverty, due to the rapid population growth, these numbers were not able to compensate the number of Africans falling into poverty. In average, Africa has shown an annual of 1% increase in poverty levels in the previous years. Due to the pandemic, the annual increase of poverty rates jumped to 8% in 2019-2020, pushing approximately 520 million Africans into poverty. Therefore, the graph on page 9 can be considered as an ongoing trend even in the year 2021, but with greater damages. The fertility rate in SSA, which was supposed to be the main focus of the graph on page 10, has remained constant from 2015-2020. However, due to the declining trends in Middle East and North Africa, which can be predicted from the graph, the average fertility rate in the continent has decreased to 4.438, 4.381, and 4.325 in the years 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. Finally, the big gaps portrayed in Figure 9 on page 20 have not changed much either throughout the years. I hope I was able to answer your questions.

  • 양서윤
    양서윤
    2021년 3월 27일 at 11:20 오후

    Hello Hwayeon Ko! Thanks for this wonderful and remarkable presentation as well as your report! Your way of proposing the solution for eradication of African poverty issue was reasonable and I was able to further comprehend the seriousness of the issue. Nonetheless, I have couple of questions for you to answer for me.

    Firstly, I wonder how education could dwindle the fertility rate in Africa. I think the solution is more considered with medical system rather than education.

    Secondly, you have emphasized the corruption in Africa as the determinant of the poverty. Then what do you think is the determinant of the corruption itself?

    Furthermore, you also referred to the success of eradicating 36 million people from poverty through SDGs movement between around 2016 and 2018. What do you think is the greatest contributor of this outcome?

    Lastly, I also want to ask your opinion of this: for the enhancement of the rule of law in Africa, do you think it will be effective to have consultation with other nations for strengthening it? I believe that Africa has some limitation on it since the power and economy of each nation in the continent is not that powerful.

    • 화연
      화연
      2021년 3월 28일 at 4:56 오전

      Hello, and thank you for your exciting questions! My answer to your first question would be the following. The reason why I believe education would likely reduce fertility rate is because young Africans would gain knowledge about contraception methods. Abstinence and contraception are two methods of reducing the fertility rate. In my opinion, abstinence does not seem to be a possible option, so it would be important to aim for the second choice. In order to do that, African people have to learn about different ways of not becoming pregnant. Therefore, I believe education is important to mitigate the population growth. However, I will be glad to hear your opinon regarding this question of yours! To answer your second question, the reasons why the SDGs had shown signs of positive development are because they were able to promote and carry out various initiatives in areas like employment, economy, industry, infrastructure, innovation and more. By doing so, African countries were able take small steps in reducing poverty and other problems surrounding the country. Lastly, even though African countries could have consultations with other countries to strengthen the rule of law, I am not sure whether this will be very likely. Corrupt government officials will probably not want to enhance the rule of law since this will prevent them from claiming all the advantages. I hope I was able to answer your questions!

      • 양서윤
        양서윤
        2021년 3월 28일 at 9:40 오후

        Thanks for sincerely answering! I understood how education is significant not only in Africa but also overseas for cooperation!

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